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Continued… Part V– Comparing Old & New + How Submarine Cables Work

Yesterday I discuss on the comparison of the components/materials used to construct the submarine telecommunications cable between the early days and present (modern days).

Today, I’ll further compare the capacity between the early days and present (modern days) submarine telecommunications cable system in its respective era as follows:

Old Cable Systems:

  • 1866: First trans-Atlantic cable carried telegraph messages at 7 words a minute & cost £20 for 20 word message
  • 1948: Telegram costs reduced to 4 pence a word for transmission across the Atlantic
  • 1956: First trans-Atlantic telephone cable (TAT-1) initially had capacity of 36 telephone calls at a time; calls costing US$12 for first 3 minutes

Modern Cable Systems:

  • 1988: First Atlantic fiber-optic cable, TAT-8, had capacity for 40,000 simultaneous phone calls, 10 times that of the last copper cable
  • Today: Each fiber pair within a cable has the capacity to carry digitized information (including video) that is equivalent to 150,000,000 simultaneous phone calls. Wow!

Knowing that the modern days sub-cables deliver the data much significantly than early days, we may wonder how these submarine cables work.

How Submarine Cables Work

  • Modern submarine telecommunications cables rely on a property of pure glass fibers, whereby light is
    transmitted by internal reflection
  • Because the light signal loses strength en route, repeaters are installed along the cable to boost the signal
  • New systems rely on optical amplifiers – glass strands containing the element, erbium. Strands are spliced at intervals along a cable & then energized by lasers that cause erbium-doped fibers to “lase” & boost optical signals

Based on the above, a typical submarine cable system is depicted on the following diagram.

Typical Submarine Cable System

Typical Submarine Cable System

>> Follow the following link to download free a bigger image size (960×703):

(File Name: http://www.ziddu.com/download/10632377/Typical_Submarine_Cable_System_watermark.png.html )

Source: International Cable Protection Committee Ltd

To be continued… Part VI– Cable Size and Comparing Submarine Cables vs Satellite.

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Continued… Part IV– Sub-Cable Network Familiarization (Sub-Cable Components)

In previous post, I’ve discussed a brief history of submarine telecommunications cable where it was started as early as in 1840.

Today, I’ll discuss on the comparison of the components/materials used to construct the submarine telecommunications cable between the early days and present (modern days). For better grasp of understanding, illustrations will be used as follows.

  • Early Telegraph Cable

Submarine-cable-layers-(old-type)

Early Submarine Telegraph Cable components/layers (old-type)

Keys:

A >> Conductor-usually copper

B >> Insulation – gutta percha resin

C >> Cushioning-jute yarn

D >> Inner protection-wire armor

E >> Jute wrap to contain wire

F >> Outer protection-wire armor

G >> Jute wrap to contain armor

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  • Modern Submarine Cable
Modern Submarine Cable layers (new-type)

Modern Submarine Cable components/layers (new-type)

Keys:

A >> Optical fibers – silica glass

B >> Core for strength & fiber separation – polyethylene/fiberglass

C >> Jacket – polyethylene

D >> Conductor – copper

E >> Jacket – polyethylene

F >> Protective armor – steel wire

G >> Outer protection & wire containment – polypropylene yarn

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Note that the construction of submarine telecommunications cable varies with manufacturer & seabed conditions.

Cables may have no armor in stable, deep-ocean sites or 1 or more armor layers for energetic zones, e.g. coastal seas.

Source: International Cable Protection Committee Ltd

To be continued… Part V– Comparing Old & New + How Submarine Cables Work

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Get & Download

This Get & Download Category section contains all download links from ZulYusof.com Blog compiled on a single page for the benefits and convenience of ZulYusof.com Blog readers.

The list will be updated accordingly. So, keep visiting this page for a quick download resources:

Get & Download Link Resources

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    Tellabs Insight Magazine, 3rd Quarter 2010

    Tellabs Insight Magazine, 3rd Quarter 2010

    Tellabs Insight Magazine, 3rd Quarter 2010 featuring TIME dotCom’s DWDM (PDF) >> Back to the Post

    *__________________________________*

    Global Submarine Cable Map 2010

    Global Submarine Cable Map 2010

    GlobalSubmarineCableMap2010.jpg (image JPG 1600×1200) >> Back to the Post

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    Submarine Cable Map 2009

    Submarine Cable Map 2009 -----courtesy TeleGeography

    GlobalSubmarineCableMap2009_1600x1200.jpg (image JPG 1600×1200) >> Back to the Post

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    International Cable Routes

    International Cable Routes ----courtesy Global Marine Systems Ltd

    InternationalCableRoutes-courtesyGlobalMarineSystemsLtd.jpg (image JPG 1034×576) >> Back to the Post

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    Typical Submarine Cable System

    Typical Submarine Cable System

    Get a copy of MERC Conceptual Framework (full version) (PDF) >> Back to the Post

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    News – TM – CLARIFICATION – INVESTORS PUT OFF BY MALAYSIA HIGH COST, LOW SPEED BROADBAND 26 NOV 2009.pdf (PDF) >> Back to the Post.

    *__________________________________*
    NEWS – SINGAPORE BUSINESS TIMES 26-Nov-09 – Investors Put Off Due To High Broadband Cost.pdf (PDF) >> Back to the Post.

    *__________________________________*

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Continued… Part III – Sub-Cable Network Familiarization (History)

To familiar with Submarine Cable Network, let’s start with the most important component of the network/system that is Submarine Telecommunications Cables.

For today post, I’ll discuss on a brief history of Submarine Telecommunications Cables so that we can have a better understanding from the history perspective. The era of seabed cables began around 1850, when the first international telegraph cable was laid across the English Channel.

  • 1840-1850: telegraph cables laid in rivers & harbors; limited life, improved with use of gutta percha insulation c.1843
Harvesting gutta percha resin

Harvesting gutta percha resin

  • 1850-1851: 1 st international telegraph link, connecting England-France across the English Channel, later cables joined other European countries & USA with Canada
Cables from UK-France link in 1850 (a) and 1851 (b)

Cables from UK-France link in 1850 (a) and 1851 (b)

  • 1858: 1st trans-Atlantic cable laid by Great Eastern, between Ireland & Newfoundland. Unfortunately this cable lasted only a few days before it was cut by a curious fisherman who thought he had discovered a new kind of seaweed and wanted to take a sample.  Failed after 26 days & new cable laid in 1866.
Great Eastern off Newfoundland c. 1858

Great Eastern off Newfoundland c. 1858

Atlantic cable 1866

Atlantic cable 1866

  • 1884: First underwater telephone cable service from San Francisco to Oakland
  • 1920s: Short-wave radio superseded cables for voice, picture & telex traffic, but capacity limited & subject to atmospheric effects
  • 1956: Invention of repeaters (1940s) & their use in TAT-1, the 1 st trans-Atlantic telephone cable, began era of rapid reliable communications
  • 1961: Beginning of high quality, global network
  • 1986: First international fiber-optic cable joins Belgium & UK
  • 1988: First trans-oceanic fibre-optic system (TAT-8) begins service in the Atlantic

Source: International Cable Protection Committee Ltd

To be continued… Part IV– Sub-Cable Network Familiarization (Sub-Cable Components)

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Continued… Part II – Telekom Malaysia Response

Yesterday, I appended a news clipping from Business Times Singapore (26-Nov-2009) entitled “Investors put off by Malaysia’s high cost, low speed broadband“ where one major reason being the monopoly which state-owned Telekom Malaysia (TM) holds on submarine cable landing rights.

As expected, TM did response to the allegation and below is the excerpt of the News Release as posted on its website:

Under Malaysia’s regulatory framework, holders of Network Facilities Provider (NFP) license can build their own network and cable landing stations should they choose to invest in the facility. …. On our part, as a result of our business decision to invest in submarine cables either on our own or most often (95% of the time) as part of a consortium, TM today has 5 cable landing stations and multiple border gateways, its own private cable to Thailand, Indonesia and Brunei as well as a direct link with Africa through South Africa Far East Cable System (SAFE) / South Atlantic Cable System 3 (SAT 3). TM also provides major transit link for carriers using their wholly-owned capacity across east and west through our cable landing stations and IP transit and bandwidth links for Indonesia, Thailand, Brunei, Sri Lanka, and major countries in Indochina.

Clearly, it is a level playing field for all operators and the notion of protectionism certainly does not exist. In compliance with the Communications and Multimedia Act 1998, TM provides open access to all of our cable landing stations to the other operators in Malaysia. In fact, for the last few years, all of our mobile carriers have activated their wholly-owned capacity and some actually use their own domestic backhaul. Apart from Malaysian mobile carriers, Thai carriers have also been TM’s customers for many years where we provide
them IP transit. We have made it public knowledge that we are open for private submarine cable systems to land in our landing stations e.g. FLAG belonging to Reliance Group of India and Dumai-Melaka Cable System (DMCS) which is wholly-owned by PT Telkom of Indonesia.

>> Follow the following link to download free full TM’s News Release above:

(File Name: News – TM – CLARIFICATION – INVESTORS PUT OFF BY MALAYSIA HIGH COST, LOW SPEED BROADBAND 26 NOV 2009.pdf)

As seen above, TM’s response emphasized on these hot tags – cable landing station, cable landing rights, submarine cable system/network, multiple border gateway, IP transit, open access and last but not least domestic backhaul. No worries, we will explore as much as possible and tomorrow we will start the familiarization stage on this hot topic. Bear with me please….. 🙂

To be continued… Part III – Sub-Cable Network Familiarization (History)

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On Nov. 26, 2009, there was a news article appeared on Business Times, Singapore entitled “Investors put off by Malaysia’s high cost, low speed broadband“.  In the article, “… consumers in Malaysia pay some of the highest prices for broadband in the region, one major reason being the monopoly which state-owned Telekom Malaysia (TM) holds on submarine cable landing rights.  …. There is no shortage of gateway service providers seeking landing rights because of the pent-up demand for quality bandwidth, but the government must deregulate or liberalise gateways in order to improve competitiveness by providing larger broadband at lower cost. …”

The screen-shot of the article (partial) is provided below:

NEWS - Investors Put Off Due To High Broadband Cost in Malaysia

NEWS - Investors Put Off Due To High Broadband Cost in Malaysia

>> Follow the following link to download free full news article above:

(File Name:  NEWS – SINGAPORE BUSINESS TIMES 26-Nov-09 – Investors Put Off Due To High Broadband Cost.jpg.pdf)

So, based on the above, I’m inclined to further discuss on this new topic…..”Submarine Cable Network, Malaysia Outlook“. In this new topic, I plan to write with the emphasize of  submarine cable, cable landing rights and cable landing station“. I believe these are the main components of a submarine cable network.

Well, I’ve no formal background on this topic, so let’s explore….. 🙂

Let’s make this post as the introduction to this new topic.

In my next post, I’ll put in the response by Telekom Malaysia in response to the above article.

To be continued… Part II – Telekom Malaysia Response

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Continued… Part VI (Final) – MERC Conceptual Framework: The remainder contents

I’m deeply sorry that I’ve been “off-mode” for almost 3 weeks. Blame it on my short vacation with my lovely family to Pangkor Island during last school term break, my busy schedule for the preparation and submission of RFP MSC Malaysia Optical Network Blueprint Development, and sadly I was ill last 5 days.

Well, as mentioned in the last post, this is the final posting on MERC Conceptual Framework after 5 consecutive postings 🙁

The actual MERC Conceptual Framework contains 2 main sections namely (A) Development Proposition and (B) Action Plan. All previous postings were part of Development Proposition while the remainder topics of Section A and whole Section B of the Framework are as follows:

Section A – DEVELOPMENT PROPOSITION (remainder):

  • RESPONSE: THE WHO
  1. THE STAKEHOLDERS
  2. LOCAL AUTHORITIES
  3. STATES AND FEDERAL TERRITORIES GOVERNMENTS
  4. THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
  5. THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND NGOS.
  • RESPONSE: THE SYSTEM
  1. SOA INTEROPERABLE MODULES
  2. Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)
  3. Fast Search search engine
  4. MERS Linked Database
  5. Citizen Emergency Management
  6. Geographical Information System (GIS)
  7. Resources And Capital Statistics (CapStats)
  8. Business Intelligence Tool

Section B – ACTION PLAN

  • DEFINING ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS
  • EVALUATING EXISTING MERC DESIGNS
  • EOC ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST
  • SITE CONSIDERATIONS
  • POTENTIAL HAZARDS
  1. Natural Hazards
  2. Technological Hazards
  • SITE SECURITY DESIGN
  • STRUCTURAL DESIGN
  • BUILDING SYSTEM DESIGN
  • COMMUNICATIONS
  • CONTROLLING ACCESS
  • HUMAN FACTORS

Well, interesting topics I hope as I try to cover various angles to make the Framework effective.

If you like to know these topics in details, don’t be despair…. keep visiting this posting as later I ‘may’ furnish the link.

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UPDATE:

If you wanna grab a copy of MERC Conceptual Framework (full version), please click here.

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Do come again to this site soon as next I will discuss on new topic.

Last but not least, thanks for those who had given the encouraging and constructing comments. I really appreciate that!

Cheers!

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Continued… Part V – How does the EOC operate? (Part 2) and NIMS.

It’s Friday today…. father of the days.

Today I’ll discuss the remainder 5 bullet points of how does the EOC operate and a brief description of NIMS.

How does the EOC operate? (Part 2)

  • During activation, the Incident Management System is led by the Incident Manager, who manages the response in collaboration with teams of experts pulled from across MERC to work with EOC core personnel.
  • Emergency operation plans developed by MERC describe the roles and responsibilities of different offices, centers, and institutes across the agency during an emergency.
  • MERC shall have an all-hazards base plan that outlines core roles and responsibilities for all-hazard responses, as well as plans for scenario-specific events such as landslides.
  • EOC staffs also serve as the initial point of contact to communicate with emergency response partners who provide support to the on-scene Incident Commander.
  • The Incident Commander is responsible for the on-scene incident response, including control of resources and resolution of on-scene issues.

NATIONAL INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (NIMS)

  • The proposed National Incident Management System (NIMS) shall be a companion document that provides standard command and management structures that apply to response activities.
  • This system shall provide a consistent, nationwide template to enable Federal Government, State governments, and local authorities, the private sector, and NGOs to work together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the effects of incidents regardless of cause, size, location, or complexity.
  • This consistency provides the foundation for utilization of the NIMS for all incidents, ranging from daily occurrences to incidents requiring a coordinated Federal Government response.

To be continued… Part VI – MERC Conceptual Framework: The remainder contents

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Continued… Part IV – How does the EOC operate?

It’s Monday blues today 🙂 …after a long weekend where last Friday Malaysian people observed Wesak Day as a public holiday.

In the last 2 posts, I’ve discussed on MERC and EOC roles and responsibilities. Today I’ll continue with the topic of the proposed how shall the EOC operates effectively. There are 11 bullet points for this topic and today I’ll only discuss first 6 bullet points. The remainder 5 bullet points will be discussed in next post.

How does the EOC operate? (Part 1)

  • When the EOC receives information about an event or incident, a preliminary assessment team of subject matter experts from across MERC is convened to recommend the scope of the response.
  • The team’s assessment is reported to the Director/Head of the Coordinating Office of Emergency Response who then advises the MERC Director/Head of the situation and provides recommendations for action, including a request for activation of the EOC.
  • MERC shall use the Incident Management System (IMS) that provides a consistent template for managing incidents to manage responses to events.
  • IMS shall be universal and standardized emergency response operating systems used around the country.
  • MERC shall train the state officials of all 14 states in Malaysia on their specific roles and responsibilities during an emergency.
  • This training helps ensure that MERC field response teams operate effectively as part of the state or local response structure.

To be continued… Part V – How does the EOC operate? (Part 2) and NIMS.

NATIONAL INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (NIMS)

  • The proposed National Incident Management System (NIMS) shall be a companion document that provides standard command and management structures that apply to response activities.
  • This system shall provide a consistent, nationwide template to enable Federal Government, State governments, and local authorities, the private sector, and NGOs to work together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the effects of incidents regardless of cause, size, location, or complexity.

This consistency provides the foundation for utilization of the NIMS for all incidents, ranging from daily occurrences to incidents requiring a coordinated Federal Government response

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Continued… Part III – EOC Roles and Responsibilities.

Yesterday, I wrote that the Emergency Operation Center (“EOC”) shall be established to serve as MERC’s operation and command center for monitoring and coordinating MERC’s emergency response to public threats in Malaysia.

Today, I’ll focus on the proposed roles and responsibilities of EOC (and MERC as well) as follows:

EOC ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES

  • The EOC shall allow MERC to maintain situational awareness of disaster related events at the national (and international), state, and local levels.
  • EOC shall be staffed around-the-clock, it serves as MERC’s central point of contact for reporting threats, and supports the existing Government’s Operations Center (if any).
  • During an emergency response, the EOC brings together specialists from across MERC to efficiently exchange information and connect with the stakeholders i.e. ministries, government agencies, state agencies, and local authorities; and emergency response partners in Malaysia i.e. Police, MERS, SAR,  SMART, Fire & Rescue Dept., Hazmat, JPA3, Red Crescent, Rescue 991, MARES, and others.
  • For multi-state or severe emergencies, MERC provides additional resources and coordinates response efforts across multiple jurisdictions, both domestically and abroad.
  • MERC shall seek assistance from regional and international experts specializing in search and rescue, medical, firefighting, hazardous materials, and emergency rapid assessment such as the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on disaster management (AHA Centre) in Jakarta where the latter shall coordinate with the authorities in Malaysia (MERC) for offers and requests for assistance from the region and international organizations.
  • The proposed EOC facility shall accommodate sufficient personnel per shift when fully staffed for two to three shifts per day to handle situations ranging from local interests to worldwide events.
  • For an efficient operation, EOC shall be managed by a department within MERC i.e. Department of Emergency Operations (DEO).
  • To support state and local efforts during an emergency response, EOC staff coordinates deployment of MERC staff and equipment that MERC responders may need.
  • In addition, the EOC is proposed to have the capability to transport life-supporting medications, equipment, and personnel at any time anywhere in Malaysia via aircraft that can be launched within 2 hours of notification.

To be continued… Part IV – How does the EOC operate?

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