Tag Archive: cable landing station


Submarine Cable Network, Malaysia Outlook (Part XV)

Continued… Part XV – Cable Landing Stations/Sites in Malaysia (East Malaysia)

I’ve to date discussed the landing sites (cable landing stations) in Peninsula Malaysia (West Malaysia) that can be summarized as follows:

  • Northern Region has 8 cable landing stations
  • Western/Central Region has 5 cable landing stations
  • Southern Region has 9 cable landing stations
  • Eastern Region has 7 cable landing stations
  • Total 29 out of 37 numbers of the landing sites (cable landing stations) in Malaysia have been discussed

Today, I’ll continue the list of the landing sites (cable landing stations) in the East Malaysia that consists of 3 states as follows:

State of Sarawak

Number of landing site (cable landing station) is 3

1st landing site (cable landing station) is Bintulu

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 1

1. Malaysia Domestic (Miri – Bintulu) – (169km route length)

2nd landing site (cable landing station) is Kuching

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysia Domestic (Kuching – Miri – Labuan) – (1,150km route length)

2. Malaysia Domestic (Mersing – Kuching) – (888km route length)

3rd landing site (cable landing station) is Miri

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysia Domestic (Kuching – Miri – Labuan) – (1,150km route length)

2. Malaysia Domestic (Miri – Bintulu) – (169km route length)

State of Federal Territory of Labuan

Number of landing site (cable landing station) is 2

1st landing site (cable landing station) is Labuan

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysia Domestic (Kuching – Miri – Labuan) – (1,150km route length)

2. Malaysia Domestic (Labuan – Kota Kinabalu) – (135km route length)

2nd landing site (cable landing station) is Tanjung Aru

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 1

1. Malaysian Domestic – CELCOM – (30km route length)

State of Sabah

Number of landing site (cable landing station) is 3

1st landing site (cable landing station) is Kota Kinabalu

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 4

1. ASEAN (Kuantan – Kota Kinabalu) – (1,500km route length)

2. Malaysia Domestic (Kuantan – Kota Kinabalu) – (1,570km route length)

3. Malaysia Domestic (Labuan – Kota Kinabalu) – (135km route length)

4. Philippines-Malaysia – (1,000km route length)

2nd landing site (cable landing station) is Tanjung Aru

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 1

1. BMP – (1,518km route length)

3rd landing site (cable landing station) is Tanjung Liba

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 1

1. Malaysian Domestic – CELCOM – (30km route length)

ACRONYMS

  • ASEAN = Association of South East Asian Nations
  • BMP = Brunei-Malaysia-Philippines

Source:  Kidorf Innovative Methods

To be continued… Part XVI – Cable Landing Stations/Sites in Malaysia (Summary)


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Submarine Cable Network, Malaysia Outlook (Part XIV)

Continued… Part XIV – Cable Landing Stations/Sites in Malaysia (Eastern Region)

I’ve to date discussed the landing sites (cable landing stations) in Malaysia for Northern, Western/Central and Southern Regions that can be summarized as follows:

  • Northern Region has 8 cable landing stations
  • Western/Central Region has 5 cable landing stations
  • Southern Region has 9 cable landing stations
  • Total 22 out of 37 numbers of the landing sites (cable landing stations) in Malaysia have been discussed

Today, I’ll continue the list of the landing sites (cable landing stations) in the Eastern Region of Peninsula Malaysia that consists of 3 states as follows:

State of Kelantan

Number of landing site (cable landing station) is 1

The landing site (cable landing station) is Kota Bharu

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysia Thailand East  – (43km route length)

2. Malaysian Festoon (Kota Bharu – Kuala Besut) – (100km route length)

State of Terengganu

Number of landing site (cable landing station) is 3

1st landing site (cable landing station) is Kuala Besut

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysian Festoon (Kota Bharu – Kuala Besut) – (100km route length)

2. Malaysian Festoon (Kuala Besut – Kuala Trengganu)  – (100km route length)

2nd landing site (cable landing station) is Kuala Dungun

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 1

1. Malaysian Festoon (Kuala Trengganu – Kuala Dungun)  – (119km route length)

3rd landing site (cable landing station) is Kuala Terengganu

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysian Festoon (Kuala Besut – Kuala Trengganu) – (100km route length)

2. Malaysian Festoon (Kuala Trengganu – Kuala Dungun) – (119km route length)

State of Pahang

Number of landing site (cable landing station) is 3

1st landing site (cable landing station) is Cherating

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. APC – (7,440km route length)

2. ASEAN (Kuantan – Kota Kinabalu) – (1,500km route length)

2nd landing site (cable landing station) is Kuala Rompin

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysian Festoon (Kuala Rompin – Mersing) – (100km route length)

2. Malaysian Festoon (Kuantan – Kuala Rompin) – (100km route length)

3rd landing site (cable landing station) is Kuantan

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 5

1. APCN2 – (19,153km route length)

2. Malaysia Domestic (Kuantan – Kota Kinabalu) – (1,570km route length)

3. Malaysia Domestic (Kuantan – Mersing) – (232km route length)

4. MT – (1,276km route length)

5. Malaysian Festoon (Kuantan – Kuala Rompin) – (100km route length)

ACRONYMS

  • APC =  Asia Pacific Cable
  • APCN = Asia-Pacific Cable Network
  • ASEAN = Association of South East Asian Nations
  • MT = Malaysia Thailand

Source:  Kidorf Innovative Methods

To be continued… Part XV – Cable Landing Stations/Sites in Malaysia (East Malaysia)


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Continued… Part XIII – Cable Landing Stations/Sites in Malaysia (Southern Region)

I’ve to date discussed the landing sites (cable landing stations) in Malaysia for Northern Region and Western/Central Region that can be summarized as follows:

  • Northern Region has 8 cable landing stations
  • Western/Central Region has 5 cable landing stations
  • Total 13 out of 37 numbers of the landing sites (cable landing stations) in Malaysia have been discussed

Today, I’ll continue the list of the landing sites (cable landing stations) in the Southern Region of Peninsula Malaysia that consists of 2 states as follows:

State of Melaka (Malacca)

Number of landing site (cable landing station) is 1

The landing site (cable landing station) is Melaka (Malacca)

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 3

1. Malaysian Festoon (Melaka – Port Dickson) – (100km route length)

2. Malaysian Festoon (Muar – Melaka) – (100km route length)

3. SEA-ME-WE-4 (Segment 1 Tuas-Mumbai) – (8,000km route length)

State of Johor (Johore)

Number of landing site (cable landing station) is 8

1st landing site (cable landing station) is Desaru

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 1

1. Malaysian Festoon (Tanjung Sekakap – Desaru) – (100km route length)

2nd landing site (cable landing station) is Kong Kong

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 1

1. Malaysian Festoon (Tanjung Belongkor – Kong Kong) – (50km route length)

3rd landing site (cable landing station) is Mersing

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 7

1. APCN (Section 1 & 2) – (9,000km route length)

2. APCN (Section 3) – (3,000km route length)

3. Malaysia Domestic (Kuantan – Mersing) – (232km route length)

4. Malaysia Domestic (Mersing – Kuching) – (888km route length)

5.  Malaysian East-East Link (Mersing – Tarempah) – (306km route length)

6. Malaysian Festoon (Kuala Rompin – Mersing) – (100km route length)

7. SEA-ME-WE-3 (Segment S2) – (6285km route length)

4th landing site (cable landing station) is Muar

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysian Festoon (Muar – Melaka) – (100km route length)

2. Malaysian Festoon (Tanjong Seginting – Muar) – (100km route length)

5th landing site (cable landing station) is Pontian Kechil

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 1

1. Malaysian Festoon (Pontian Kechil – Tanjung Seginting) – (25km route length)

6th landing site (cable landing station) is Tanjung Belongkor (Desaru)

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 1

1. Malaysian Festoon (Tanjung Belongkor – Kong Kong) – (50km route length)

7th landing site (cable landing station) is Tanjung Seginting (Minyak Beku, Batu Pahat)

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysian Festoon (Pontian Kechil – Tanjung Seginting) – (25km route length)

2. Malaysian Festoon (Tanjong Seginting – Muar) – (100km route length)

8th landing site (cable landing station) is Tanjung Sekakap (Mersing)

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 1

1. Malaysian Festoon (Tanjung Sekakap – Desaru) – (100km route length)

ACRONYMS

  • APCN = Asia-Pacific Cable Network
  • SEA-ME-WE a.k.a SMW = South East Asia – Middle East – Western Europe

Source:  Kidorf Innovative Methods

To be continued… Part XIV – Cable Landing Stations/Sites in Malaysia (Eastern Region)

Malaysian Festoon (Muar – Melaka)


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Continued… Part XII – Cable Landing Stations/Sites in Malaysia (Western/Central Region)

In my last post (Part XI), I’ve discussed on the list of the landing sites (cable landing stations) in the northern region of Peninsula Malaysia that consists of 3 states namely Perlis, Kedah and Pulau Pinang (Penang).

Today, I’ll continue the list of the landing sites (cable landing stations) in the Western/Central Region of Peninsula Malaysia that consists of 3 states as follows:

State of Perak

Number of landing site (cable landing station) is 2

1st landing site (cable landing station) is Kuala Kurau

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysian Festoon (Kuala Kurau – Seberang Prai) – (50km route length)

2. Malaysian Festoon (Lumut – Kuala Kurau) – (100km route length)

2nd landing site (cable landing station) is Lumut

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysian Festoon (Lumut – Kuala Kurau) – (100km route length)

2. Malaysian Festoon (Tanjong Karang – Lumut) – (100km route length)

State of Selangor

Number of landing site (cable landing station) is 2

1st landing site (cable landing station) is Klang South Port

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysian Festoon (Klang South Port – Tanjung Karang) – (100km route length)

2. Malaysian Festoon (Port Dickson – Kelang South Port) – (100km route length)

2nd landing site (cable landing station) is Tanjung Karang

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysian Festoon (Klang South Port – Tanjung Karang) – (100km route length)

2. Malaysian Festoon (Tanjung Karang – Lumut) – (100km route length)

State of Negeri Sembilan

Number of landing site (cable landing station) is 1

1st landing site (cable landing station) is Port Dickson

Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysian Festoon (Melaka – Port Dickson) – (100km route length)

2. Malaysian Festoon (Port Dickson – Kelang South Port) – (100km route length)

Source:  Kidorf Innovative Methods

To be continued… Part XIII – Cable Landing Stations/Sites in Malaysia (Southern Region)


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Submarine Cable Network, Malaysia Outlook (Part XI)

Continued… Part XI – Cable Landing Stations/Sites in Malaysia

In my last post, I furnished a Facts & Figures table in relation to 20 active submarine cables networks that landed in Malaysia. The table includes the figures of 37 landing sites (cable landing stations) in all 14 states of Malaysia.

Today’s post onward, I’ll elaborate on the list of the landing sites (cable landing stations) in Malaysia. I’ll first start with the northern region of Peninsula Malaysia that consists of 3 states as follows:

State of Perlis

  • Number of landing site (cable landing station) is 1
    • Landing site (cable landing station) is Kuala Perlis
      • Number of submarine cable network landed here is 3

1. Malaysia Thailand West (75km route length)
2. Malaysian Domestic (Palau Langkawi – Kuala Perlis) (34km route length)
3. Malaysian Festoon (Kuala Muda – Kuala Perlis) (100km route length)

State of Kedah

  • Number of landing site (cable landing station) is 2
    • 1st landing site (cable landing station) is Kuala Muda
      • Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysian Festoon (Kuala Muda – Kuala Perlis) (100km route length)
2. SAFE (11428km route length)

  • 2nd landing site (cable landing station) is Pulau Langkawi
    • Number of submarine cable network landed here is 1

1. Malaysian Domestic (Palau Langkawi – Kuala Perlis) (34km route length)

State of Pulau Pinang (Penang)

  • Number of landing site (cable landing station) is 5
    • 1st landing site (cable landing station) is Juru, Seberang Prai Tengah
      • Number of submarine cable network landed here is 1

1. Malaysia Power Cable (28km route length)

  • 2nd landing site (cable landing station) is Permatang Damar Laut
    • Number of submarine cable network landed here is 1

1. Malaysian Festoon (Permatang Damar Laut – Seberang Prai) (10km route length)

  • 3rd landing site (cable landing station) is Pulau Pinang (Penang)
    • Number of submarine cable network landed here is 4

1. Malaysia Domestic (Penang – Seberang Jaya) (5km route length)
2. Malaysia Power Cable (28km route length)
3. Malaysia Power Cable (28km route length)
4. SEA-ME-WE-3 (Segment S4) (7115km route length)

  • 4th landing site (cable landing station) is Seberang Jaya
    • Number of submarine cable network landed here is 1

1. Malaysia Domestic (Penang – Seberang Jaya) (5km route length)

  • 5th landing site (cable landing station) is Seberang Prai
    • Number of submarine cable network landed here is 2

1. Malaysian Festoon (Kuala Kurau – Seberang Prai) (50km route length)
2. Malaysian Festoon (Permatang Damar Laut – Seberang Prai) (10km route length)

ACRONYMS

  • SAFE = South Africa Far East
  • SEA-ME-WE a.k.a SMW = South East Asia – Middle East – Western Europe

Source:  Kidorf Innovative Methods

To be continued… Part XII – Cable Landing Stations/Sites in Malaysia (Western/Central Region)


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Continued… Part X – Cable Landing Stations/Sites in Malaysia

In my last post, I discussed on 20 submarine cable networks for telecommunication (internet), telecommunication (data), telecommunication (cellular) and power/electrical that landed on Malaysia shores and lands.

Today I’ll continue further on some interesting facts and figures with respect to those 20 submarine cables networks that landed in Malaysia. Check out the following interesting Facts & Figures table:

Facts & Figures of submarine cable networks in Malaysia

Facts & Figures of submarine cable networks in Malaysia

Source:  Kidorf Innovative Methods

To be continued… Part XI – Cable Landing Stations/Sites in Malaysia


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In my previous post on July 1, 2010 under Submarine Cable Network, Malaysia Outlook (Part II) for the topic of Telekom Malaysia Response, below is the excerpt of Telekom Malaysia’s (TM’s) response:

TM today has 5 cable landing stations and multiple border gateways, its own private cable to Thailand, Indonesia and Brunei as well as a direct link with Africa through South Africa Far East Cable System (SAFE) / South Atlantic Cable System 3 (SAT 3).

The above mentioned 5 cable landing stations and submarine cable networks belong to TM that forms the main internet gateways for Malaysia. TM is also a party to the following international submarine cable networks:

  • AAG
  • APCN
  • APCN2
  • BRCS
  • DMCS
  • FEA a.k.a FLAG FEA
  • MT
  • SAFE
  • SEA-ME-WE-2 a.k.a SMW2
  • SEA-ME-WE-3 a.k.a SMW3
  • SEA-ME-WE-4 a.k.a SMW4

Besides telecommunication submarine cable network that mainly use to carry internet bandwidth and telecommunication data, there are also power/electrical submarine cable network that landed at cable landing stations/sites.

Other than the above mentioned submarine cable networks, there are many other submarine cable networks that landed at various cable landing stations/sites located along the Malaysia’s coastal areas.

Below is the list of submarine cable networks in Malaysia to date with its respective length. The list consists of submarine cable networks for telecommunication (internet), telecommunication (data), telecommunication (cellular) and power/electrical.

  1. APC – 7440km
  2. APCN (Section 1 & 2) – 9000km
  3. APCN (Section 3) – 3000km
  4. APCN 2 – 19153km
  5. ASEAN (Kuantan – Kota Kinabalu) – 1500km
  6. BMP – 1518km
  7. FLAG – 27300km
  8. Malaysia Domestic – multiple circuits/hops – 4183km
  9. Malaysian Domestic – CELCOM – 30km
  10. Malaysia Power Cable – 28km
  11. MT – 1276km
  12. Malaysia Thailand East – 43km
  13. Malaysia Thailand West – 75km
  14. Malaysian East-East Link – multiple circuits/hops -648km
  15. Malaysian Festoon – multiple circuits/hops – 1554km
  16. Philippines-Malaysia – 1000km
  17. SAFE – 11428km
  18. SEA-ME-WE-3 (Segment S2) – 6285km
  19. SEA-ME-WE-3 (Segment S4) – 7115km
  20. SEA-ME-WE-4 (Segment 1)

ACRONYMS

  • AAG = Asia-America Gateway
  • APC = Asia Pacific Cable
  • APCN = Asia-Pacific Cable Network
  • ASEAN = Association of South East Asian Nations
  • BMP = Brunei-Malaysia-Philippines
  • BRCS = Batam Rengit Cable System
  • DMCS = Dumai Melaka Cable System
  • FLAG = Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe
  • FEA a.k.a FLAG FEA = FLAG Europe-Asia
  • MT = Malaysia Thailand
  • SAFE = South Africa Far East
  • SEA-ME-WE a.k.a SMW = South East Asia – Middle East – Western Europe

Source:  Kidorf Innovative Methods

To be continued… Part X – Cable Landing Stations/Sites in Malaysia

APCN


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Yesterday, I’ve discussed the description of typical submarine cable system in reference to the “Typical Submarine Cable System” diagram. Under “Terminal Equipment” description, the terminal equipment such as PFE, SLTE, SIE, SSE and NME have been mentioned (please refer yesterday’s post for description of these acronyms). The terminal equipment are typically housed in the cable landing station premises.

For your better understanding, today I’ll post another version of “Typical Submarine/Undersea Cable System” diagram that include terminal equipment components. I have 2 similar diagrams that I would like to share as follows:

Typical Undersea Cable System

Four major components form an undersea cable system

Note: Mux in the diagram is an acronym for Multiplexer.

The second diagram below demarcates the submarine cable system into two parts namely “Dry Plant” and “Wet Plant”.

Submarine Cable System Diagram

Submarine Cable System Diagram

Note: PoP in the diagram is an acronyms for Point of Presence

Source: TeleGeography

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In my previous post Submarine Cable Network, Malaysia Outlook (Part V) on July 9, 2010, I’ve included a diagram of “Typical Submarine Cable System” (refer below) but unfortunately I forgot to describe the diagram. Pardon moi!

So today, I’m gonna make it up by giving the description of the diagram as follows:

Typical Submarine Cable System

Typical Submarine Cable System

Cable Landing Station

The landing station is the first point at which the submarine cable is terminated/connected to the landing country. The landing station will be used as international gateway for internet traffic by ISP.

Landing stations house terminal equipment, including lasers, multiplexers, and power supply, that takes the optical signal from the submarine cable and passes it on to a terrestrial system.

Terminal Equipment

Terminal equipment, typically housed in the equipment room and landing station room, is what is necessary to light the entire length of the cable and to provide a point of connection for the
submarine cable to the terrestrial infrastructure in the country. They include power feeding equipment (PFE), transmission equipment, Submarine Line Terminal Equipment (SLTE), SONET/SDH Interconnecting Equipment (SIE), System Supervisory Equipment (SSE), and network monitoring equipment.

Network Management System

The landing station would have a state of the art network management system which can monitor/manage the network effectively. Network Management Systems shall provide fault, configuration, performance, and security management at local, and global levels.

Buried Cable Segment

Submarine cables are typically buried as they approach shore. This helps protect submarine cables from trawlers and fishing operations from accidentally breaking the submarine cable along the shore.

Submarine Cables

Submarine cables are laid on the ocean floor and require several layers of amour to to protect the system from damage due to debris, pressure, or shifts along the ocean floor.

Repeaters

Repeaters are placed along the length of the submarine cable system to correct and amplify the signal carried by the system. The distance between repeaters is relative to the overall system bandwidth; higher capacity systems require repeaters to be spaced closer together.

Source: TeleGeography, Fujitsu

Follow this link to view or download the larger image of “Typical Submarine Cable System”.

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Continued… Part II – Telekom Malaysia Response

Yesterday, I appended a news clipping from Business Times Singapore (26-Nov-2009) entitled “Investors put off by Malaysia’s high cost, low speed broadband“ where one major reason being the monopoly which state-owned Telekom Malaysia (TM) holds on submarine cable landing rights.

As expected, TM did response to the allegation and below is the excerpt of the News Release as posted on its website:

Under Malaysia’s regulatory framework, holders of Network Facilities Provider (NFP) license can build their own network and cable landing stations should they choose to invest in the facility. …. On our part, as a result of our business decision to invest in submarine cables either on our own or most often (95% of the time) as part of a consortium, TM today has 5 cable landing stations and multiple border gateways, its own private cable to Thailand, Indonesia and Brunei as well as a direct link with Africa through South Africa Far East Cable System (SAFE) / South Atlantic Cable System 3 (SAT 3). TM also provides major transit link for carriers using their wholly-owned capacity across east and west through our cable landing stations and IP transit and bandwidth links for Indonesia, Thailand, Brunei, Sri Lanka, and major countries in Indochina.

Clearly, it is a level playing field for all operators and the notion of protectionism certainly does not exist. In compliance with the Communications and Multimedia Act 1998, TM provides open access to all of our cable landing stations to the other operators in Malaysia. In fact, for the last few years, all of our mobile carriers have activated their wholly-owned capacity and some actually use their own domestic backhaul. Apart from Malaysian mobile carriers, Thai carriers have also been TM’s customers for many years where we provide
them IP transit. We have made it public knowledge that we are open for private submarine cable systems to land in our landing stations e.g. FLAG belonging to Reliance Group of India and Dumai-Melaka Cable System (DMCS) which is wholly-owned by PT Telkom of Indonesia.

>> Follow the following link to download free full TM’s News Release above:

(File Name: News – TM – CLARIFICATION – INVESTORS PUT OFF BY MALAYSIA HIGH COST, LOW SPEED BROADBAND 26 NOV 2009.pdf)

As seen above, TM’s response emphasized on these hot tags – cable landing station, cable landing rights, submarine cable system/network, multiple border gateway, IP transit, open access and last but not least domestic backhaul. No worries, we will explore as much as possible and tomorrow we will start the familiarization stage on this hot topic. Bear with me please….. 🙂

To be continued… Part III – Sub-Cable Network Familiarization (History)

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